Mauna Kea's most recent eruption occurred ~4,500 years ago, generating both lava flows and cinder cones. This linear feature may be a buried rift zone of Mauna Kea, although no surface expressions of those rift zones have been mapped (Kauahikaua and others, 2000).". Mauna Kea volcano hasn't erupted in over 4,500 years, but that doesn't mean it's quiet. This report presents early observations by Western explorers; discussions from Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) scientists focusing on the potential for future eruptions; seismicity during 2000-2013; and a recent report by HVO scientists highlighting drastic changes at an alpine lake, Lake Waiau. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. De Mauna Kea is een slapende vulkaan op het eiland Hawaï.De vulkaan steekt 4207 meter boven de zeespiegel uit. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The potential for a future eruption from Mauna Kea was addressed in a Volcano Watch article posted in June 2000 by then Scientist-in-Charge, Don Swanson, from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) (Swanson, 2000ab). Washington, H.S., 1923, Petrology of the Hawaiian Islands; I, Kohala and Mauna Kea, Hawaii: American Journal of Science, ser. A-AD-6(1). This pattern of activity might also imply that the next eruption of Mauna Kea could be followed by others at much shorter intervals, representing a potential clustering of events in the given time interval (Jim Kauahikaua, personal communication, 30 May 2014). Mauna Loa volcano is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. A note regarding Hawaiian names and nomenclature. The submarine feature known as the Hilo Ridge was also included in the density study with data contributed by GLORIA (a side-scan sonar) as well as satellites ERS-1, Geosat, and Seasat. The tiny earthquakes aren’t signs of the volcano… At 13,796 feet above sea level and over 33,000 feet from the bottom of the ocean floor, Mauna Kea is the tallest sea mountain in the world. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports. 4, p. 289-316. [1] Met een totale hoogte van 10.203 meter, gemeten vanaf het laagste punt van zijn voet op de bodem van de Grote Oceaan, wordt het soms gezien als de hoogste berg ter wereld, hoewel de Mount Everest en vele andere bergen hoger boven zeeniveau uitsteken. Contributions from permafrost were also proposed by Woodcock (1980), but the presence of permafrost has not been confirmed near Lake Waiau. Mauna Kea (pronunciación en inglés: /ˌmɔːnə ˈkeɪ.ə/ ó /ˌmaʊnə ˈkeɪ.ə/), es un volcán inactivo de la isla de Hawái.Con una altitud de 4207 msnm, es el punto más alto del estado de Hawái.. Medida desde su base en el fondo del océano hasta la cumbre, Mauna Kea supera los 10.000 m de altitud, siendo por tanto más alto que el Monte Everest. "Possibly, however, there will not be enough spattering to build a lasting cone. Er zijn plannen om hier de grootste telescoop ter wereld te bouwen, de Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), een samenwerking tussen de Verenigde Staten, Japan, China, India en Canada. A-AD-6(1) which included potential cultural impacts on the island by expanding State Routes 190 and 200, "The mountain is the sacred child of Wakea, and it is the source for the land. ... and the rain continued all the way back to Volcano. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1557, Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O. Image of the Day Land Human Presence. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston (2006), Hawaii. "The next eruption of Mauna Kea is unlikely to occur in our lifetimes, but it could. De vulkaan steekt 4207 meter boven de zeespiegel uit. Stratigraphy and chronology of late Quaternary tephra along the South Rift Zone of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The largest subaerial volcano in both mass and volume, Mauna Loa has historically been considered the largest volcano on Earth, dwarfed only by Tamu Massif. In more recent years, however, the BGN has amended its policy to permit the inclusion of such marks, thus more accurately reflecting the true representation of the native language. This activity is considered characteristic of a volcanic system that had evolved past the shield-building stage to the post-shield stage (Hoover and Fodor, 1997). Mauna Kea Volcano rises high above the landscape on the north side of Hawaii's Big Island, stretching 13,796 feet (4205 meters) above the beaches along the Kohala coast. 172 no. Hij heeft al eerder een slapend bestaan gehad dat langer duurde dan 4500 jaar, dus het huidige gebrek aan activiteit is geen teken dat de vulkaan definitief is uitgedoofd. The cinder cones responsible for the "bumpy" appearance of Mauna Kea's surface formed during the 60,000-4,000-year interval. On 23 February 2001, a swarm of ~15 events was detected within a 21-hour period. Positive gravity anomalies define gravitationally dense zones caused by intrusions and cumulates beneath the summit and known rift zones of each of the five volcanoes composing the island. These alteration products may serve as a weak cement between the pyroclasts and reduce the permeability of the cinder cone's base. Early European observations. The above-stated age determinations were made based on radiocarbon dating of charcoal collected within the Humu`ula soil (Porter, 1971; Wolfe and others, 1997); this soil lies directly beneath the S flank lava flows of Pu`ukole and Pu`u Loa Loa (figure 4). HVO reported that, like many of Mauna Kea's earthquakes, these earthquakes were "most likely caused by structural adjustments within the Earth's crust due to the heavy load of Mauna Kea." It erupted many times between 60,000 and 4,000 years ago, and some periods of quiet during that time apparently lasted longer than 4,000 years. "For example, the most recent eruptive period, 6,000-4,000 years ago, involved eight vents on the south flank of the volcano between Kala`i`eha cone (near Humu`ula) and Pu`ukole (east of Hale Pohaku). Mauna Kea summit yesterday, covered in snow, as viewed from Mauna Loa... on the Big Island of Hawaii. An example of this has been the addition of the glottal stop (okina) and macron (kahako) to placenames of Hawaiian origin, which prior to 1995 had always been omitted. Even this is a sight to behold! Fitzpatrick, G.L, 1986. The coordinates used for tracking their observations will begin to drift unexpectedly as the volcano is swelling. De Mauna Kea is een slapende vulkaan op het eiland Hawaï. Image. This is the first Bulletin report for Mauna Kea, the tallest volcano on the Island of Hawai`i (figures 1, 2, and 3). A quick footnote here about the volcano’s name: while Mauna Kea means “White Mountain” and is certainly an apt description, you’ll also see the area referred to as Maunakea -- all one word. Geology, 28, 10, p. 883. Patrick, M. R. and Delparte, D., 2014, Tracking Dramatic Changes at Hawaii's Only Alpine Lake: EOS (Transactions, American Geophysical Union), Vol. Retrieved from http://go.hrw.com/atlas/norm_htm/hawaii.htm. Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. The latest eruptions produced a series of cinder cones and lava flows from vents on the northern and southern flanks during the early- to mid-Holocene. The base data for that map came from more than 3,300 gravity measurements made above sea level. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. "Cinder cones form at vents that are point sources, not elongate fissures. Mauna Kea, Hawaii's highest volcano, reaches 4205 m, only 35 m above its neighbor, Mauna Loa. Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, Eruptions, Earthquakes & Emissions Application, Department of Mineral Sciences collections, World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO), GVMID Data on Volcano Monitoring Infrastructure, Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE), Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA), Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA), WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. Related Article: 10 Facts about Layers of Earth. Mauna Kea is considered to be a dormant shield volcano in what is commonly known as the "post-shield" stage. and Nakata, J.S., 2011, Earthquakes in Hawai`i-An Underappreciated but Serious Hazard, Fact Sheet 2011-3013, USGS Fact Sheet, September 2011. De leeftijd wordt geschat op 1 miljoen jaar, de oudste gevonden stenen zijn ca. The volcano is not dead. Island-wide instrumentation allowed excellent location data for the local seismicity (figure 8). Consequently, the postshield eruptions are not concentrated along narrow zones but instead are scattered across the mountain. During this same period, eruptions took place on the northeast flank at Pu`u Lehu and Pu`u Kanakaleonui. As Mauna Kea evolved from its early shield stage (equivalent to Kilauea and Mauna Loa today) to its present postshield stage, the volcano lost its rift zones. The next eruption will likely produce a similar cone. The few exceptions included the Spanish tilde and the French accent marks, but otherwise the special characters found in indigenous names were always dropped. "The telescopes on top of the volcano may be the first to indicate that something is amiss. Lava from Pu`u Kanakaleonui flowed more than 20 km (12 miles) northeastward, entering the sea to form Laupahoehoe Point. The designations of shield-building and post-shield stages come from a system of structural development that represents the current understanding of Hawaiian volcanism. USGS scientists at HVO as well as collaborators, including Idaho State University, continued to study the conditions at Lake Waiau after the significant survey was conducted in December 2013. Mauna Kea's summit is considered "one of the most sacred spots in the Hawaiian Islands. Mauna Kea is presently considered a volcano exhibiting quiescence that has, according to the known geologic record, an extensive history of lapsed activity. This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Sections of this page. Mauna Kea is one of five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaiʻi, the largest and youngest island of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. The next eruption of Mauna Kea. Geotherm. A road that reaches a cluster of astronomical observatories on the summit also provides access to seasonal tropical skiing. The Maunakea and Mauna Loa summits were blanketed with snow Monday evening amid a winter storm warning that remains posted until 6 p.m. Tuesday. In contrast to Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea lacks a summit caldera and is capped by a profusion of cinder cones and pyroclastic deposits. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. References: Clague, D.A., and Dalrymple, G.B., 1987, The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. A mirror image of the Haleakala, experience … 95, No. Wright, T.L., Chu, J.Y., Esposo, J., Heliker, C., Hodge, J., Lockwood, J.P., and Vogt, S.M., 1992a, Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, island of Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2193, scale 1:250,000. Based on the occurrence of 12 eruptions within a 10,000 year period, Mauna Kea's recurrence interval is ~1,000 years (Geohazards Consultants International, Inc., 2000). Volcano Watch. In fact, for decades it has been hiding one of the most unique seismic signals seen at any volcano. [See figure 6.]. De top van de Mauna Kea is te bereiken via een voor het grootste gedeelte verharde weg. Standing 4,205 m (13,796 ft) above sea level, its peak is the highest point in the U.S. state of Hawaii. "Mauna Kea's peaceful appearance is misleading. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility. In December 2013, scientists visited the lake and observed an unprecedented sight (figure 13). Earthquake swarms at Mauna Kea. What makes the Mauna Kea summit so popular among visitors is, of course, the fact that you can drive up this inactive volcano all the way to the top. "Mauna Kea has an elliptical-shaped core, slightly elongated east-west, with a broad, linear feature trending southeast. The article addresses not only eruption frequency but also trends in eruption style, the potential response of the telescope installation at Mauna Kea's summit, and a general forecast for a likely scenario in the future. Sporadic winter storms have provided most, if not all, of the water captured in this considerably arid region (Patrick and Delparte, 2014). Mauna Kea also served as a burial ground for high-ranking chiefs and priests, and religious ceremonies still take place on the long-quiet volcano, even today. There is no reason to fear such an eruption. Mauna Kea, Hawaii's highest volcano, reaches 4205 m, only 35 m above its … "The next eruption could take place anywhere on the upper flanks of the volcano. They produced tools from the volcano-glacial basalts of the mountain. There is no Deformation History data available for Mauna Kea. Volgens de Hawaiiaanse mythologie vond de schepping van de wereld plaats op Mauna Kea ('witte berg') toen de hemelgod Wākea de aardegodin Papahānaumoku ontmoette. Geologists estimate that Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active volcano, has erupted about once every six years for the past three millennia. Of these five hotspot volcanoes, Mauna Kea is the fourth oldest and fourth most active. Volcanoes: Global Perspectives, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, ix, 539 p. Okubo, P.G. It's rift zones are less pronounced than on neighboring volcanoes, and the eruption of voluminous, late-stage pyroclastic material has buried much of the early basaltic shield volcano, creating a steeper and more irregular profile. To reach the visitor station you will follow Hwy 200 (Saddle Road) until you get to the Mauna Kea access road (around mile marker 28, across the street from the Puʻu Huluhulu Cinder cone parking lot) and follow that road up. Based on the National Drought Mitigation Center's data, since 2008, and notably in March 2010, precipitation has been sparse at the summit of Mauna Kea. USGS-HVO (May 2002). Hoover, S.R. Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands.It is the highest point in Hawaii at 4,205 meters. Retrieved from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/archive/2000/00_06_01.html. But more than likely, you will see higher mountains (like Mauna Kea, Hualalai, and Haleakala) sticking up over a sea of clouds. Patrick and Delparte (2014) reported that the lake size before 2010 was 5,000-7,000 m2 with a depth of ~3 m, but recently, the size has been decreasing rapidly. Mauna Kea, the highest volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, erupted most recently between about 6,000 and 4,500 years ago from at least seven separate summit-area vents, producing lava flows and cinder cones. In the recent past, the lake was known to overflow through the Pohakuloa Gulch when water levels exceeded the rim (as recently as February 2002) (Ehlmann and others, 2005). It would not threaten human life, provided due care were taken, though it could prove devastating to property and infrastructure, particularly if a lava flow traveled to the Hamakua coast or the Waimea area.". Although the most recent eruption occurred ~4,500 years ago, this volcano has the potential to reawaken. The cinder cone Pu`uwaiau, located within 2 km of the summit, has contained a freshwater lake that was considered permanent by Wolfe and others (1997) (figures 11 and 12). Mauna Kea is a volcano on the island of Hawaii. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales. Reports of felt earthquakes from Mauna Kea correlated with magnitude 2.1-4.9 earthquakes during 1973-2012. Het is een van de beste plaatsen ter wereld om waarnemingen van het heelal te doen. and Fodor, R.V., 1997, Magma-reservoir crystallization processes: small-scale dikes in cumulate gabbros, Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, Bulletin of Volcanology, 59, p. 186-197. 30, p. 465-502. If measured from top to bottom, below sea level, it is 10,200 meters high and would be the tallest mountain in the world. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. 1, 160 pp. HVO reported that earthquake swarms occasionally occur at Mauna Kea. It began as a preshield volcano driven by the Hawaiʻi hotspot around one million years ago, and became exceptionally active during its shield stage until 500,000 years ago. Wolfe E W, Wise W S, Dalrymple B, 1997. The BGN staff, under the direction and guidance of the Hawaii State Geographic Names Authority, has been restoring systemically these marks to each Hawaiian name listed in GNIS.". Other Volcanoes. This transition took place about 200,000 to 250,000 years ago, and much of Mauna Kea, whose Hawaiian name means "White Mountain," was constructed during the Pleistocene. Figure 6 maps the 3-dimensional structure as modeled from the gravity data and expresses the gravity anomalies in terms of elevation from the overlying ground surface. Mauna Kea kuahiwi ku ha’o ika malie (Mauna Kea is the astonishing mountain that stands in the calm) ‘Since starting this outfit in 83’ with an ancient Land Cruiser and a basket full of dusty sweaters, my guides and I have had the enviable job of guiding inquisitive folks, like you, to the beauty of Mauna Kea. Glaciers covered parts of the volcano's summit area during the recent ice ages, the only Hawaiian volcano known to have been glaciated. Given that record, future eruptions seem almost certain. As such, the Board collects and promulgates every name that is considered official for Federal use. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. Wolfe and others (1997) determined that "eruptive activity of Mauna Kea was partly contemporaneous with that at Kohala, Hualalai, and Mauna Loa, and the volcano boundaries are undoubtedly complex.". 4000 tot 6000 jaar geleden voor het laatst actief; er waren toen minstens zeven uitbarstingen. Of course, there is also the summit caldera itself, which is HUGE. HVO Volcano Watch article highlights a Mauna Kea forecast. Mauna Kea Volcano: The Tallest Mountain. Mauna Kea volcano Shield volcano 4205 m / 13,796 ft United States, Hawaiian Islands, 19.82°N / -155.47°W Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) Such an eruption happened about 1 km (0.6 miles) southeast of Hale Pohaku, when a vent put out a moderate volume of lava without building a spatter or cinder cone. Accessibility Help. Soaring 13,802 feet from where its base meets the ocean to its snow-covered peak, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world. Massive Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world, towering 33,476 feet (10,204 meters) above its base on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. As previously noted in other Bulletin reports, according to Runyon (2006), "The U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is responsible for establishing and maintaining uniform geographical name usage throughout all departments and agencies of the United States government. The geology and petrology of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii--a study of postshield volcanism. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email. Eruptive History. 5, v. 5, no. University of Hawaii Press, p. 1-15. It towers over the next closest volcanoes in the state such as the dormant Haleakala Volcano the valley island of Maui. J. Volcanol. All activity is concentrated at one place, so that fountaining and spattering build a high cone rather than a long rampart. Lake Waiau has likely persisted due to the once-glassy cinders and bombs that have weathered to smectite with zeolites within the void spaces. Lockwood, J.P., and Hazlett, R.W., 2010. It stands about 4,207.3... 2. In contrast to Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea lacks a summit caldera and is capped by a profusion of cinder cones and pyroclastic deposits. Res., 151: 309-317. The slopes of Mauna Kea were inhabited by the ancient Hawaiian people because the forests provided them with sufficient food. Hydrologic and isotopic modeling of Alpine Lake Waiau, Mauna Kea, Hawai`i. Ethnographic research conducted prior to 1999 and released in the impact statement concluded that the summit area of Mauna Kea was eligible for the National Register of Historic Places due to traditional cultural property. The mountains and land were genealogically connected to native Hawaiians through the original ancestor, Wakea [sky father] and Papa [earth mother].". Porter S C, 1973. 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