himalayan musk deer moschus leucogaster

Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Additionally, musk deer do not have antlers. 56-64 in Threatened Deer. HBTL Catalogue and Brochure can be downloaded here and here Male Himalayan musk deer are quite territorial of other males and fight those which attempt to enter their territory. at http://www.burmalibrary.org/reg.burma/archives/200010/msg00023.html. defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement. at http://www.arkive.org/himalayan-musk-deer/moschus-leucogaster. This secretion also deters rivals during the breeding season. Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) is considered endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and is under Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, because of its illicit hunting for musk as well as habitat loss. Around 25 g of musk can be extracted from a single musk sac. This material is based upon work supported by the (Groves, et al., 1995; Wilson and Reeder, 2005), During the mating season, male Himalayan musk deer become anxious, competitive, and eat little. Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. January 18, 2011 2009. Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Sagarmatha National Park / Nepal This shy Himalayan mammal species is listed by IUCN as Endangered because of a probable serious population decline. April 25, 2009 Help us improve the site by taking our survey. The unique feature of the Musk Deer are the canines, that stick out downwards from the mouth (larger in Males than in Females). ("Family Moschidae", 2009; "Musk Deer", 2009; Aryal, 2005), Himalayan musk deer are herbivores and feed on what is seasonally available. 2008. Moschustiere (Moschus) Art: Himalaya-Moschustier Wissenschaftlicher Name; Moschus leucogaster: Hodgson, 1839 Das Himalaya-Moschustier (Moschus leucogaster) ist eine Art der Moschustiere (Moschidae). Moschus leucogaster was separated from Moschus chrysogaster based on skull size proportions, though it is difficult to distinguish one species from another by sight. "Family Moschidae" At market, 1 kg of musk can be worth $45,000 USD, a figure which increases as species populations decrease. and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Job creation and income generating opportunities at a local level, where forest sustainability, social, and economical issues are a factor, are now closely monitored and product quality is controlled from harvest to finished product. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; "Musk Deer", 2009; Aryal, 2005; "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010), Moschus leucogaster was once considered the same species as Moschus chrysogaster, as both species have similar life history traits and characteristics. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Acia Theriologica Sinica, 15/3: 181-197. Track our progress by signing up for our occasional news blast. The are no known adverse effects of Himalayan musk deer on humans. Care 4 Nature. are members of the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. (On-line). Moschus leucogaster – Himalayan Musk deer. 2009. 2010. "Moschus leucogaster" Nepal The Conflict. (Green, 1978; "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010), Himalayan musk deer have a highly acute sense of smell. Groves, Yingxiang, and Grubb (1995) suggest a difference in the appearance of the throat: while M. chrysogaster have distinct white stripes or a white patch on their throats, this characteristic is vague in Moschus leucogaster, if present at all. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) Es ist an den südlichen Hängen des Himalayas im nordwestlichen und nordöstlichen Indien, in Nepal und Bhutan verbreitet. Greater crown cover and shrub diversity were associated with the presence of musk deer whereas tree height, diameter and diversity were weakly correlated. Promoting and marketing locally producedCertified Wildlife Friendly® products including beautiful handmade papers, woven nettle and hemp fabric and products,and essential oils, have greatly benefited marginalized community groups, helping them to fight poverty and improve their standard of living, while protecting the extraordinary biodiversity of the region. Threats to native wildlife include unsustainable use of non-timber forest products which degrades habitat upon which wildlife depend. Cite this page along with its URL as: Bayani, A. Although both sexes have long upper canines, the males' grow longer, up to 7 to 10 cm. Convergent in birds. When chased, Himalayan musk deer seek mountainside shelters in which to hide. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular, and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. Email: hbtlp@wlink.com.np Verbreitungsgebiet des Himalaya-Moschustiers. "Musk deer facing risk of extinction" Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster). The species is nocturnal, crepuscular, and elu-sive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate), body parts are source of valuable material, Status and distribution of Himalayan Musk deer ‘Moschus chrysogaster’ in Annapurna Conservation Area of Manang District, Nepal, Mammal Species of the World. Accessed animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Accessed Abstract . Merkmale. communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them, breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. Contributor Galleries Himalayan musk deer are listed as endangered on both the IUCN Red List and the US Federal List. Tel: +977-1-4386690 (in Nepal), “Wildlife Friendly® is a brand consumers trust to make choices that conserve nature - priceless!”- Dr. David Wilkie. (2018). In addition, where Nepal borders Tibet, there is cross-border illegal trade in wildlife parts. As a result forest coverage has increased substantially over the last 10 years improving habitat for wildlife. Tweet; Description: Rare, elusive and endangered, the Musk Deer is one of the most fascinating species of Deer found in the southern slopes of Himalayas. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. Himalayan musk deer mate between November and January, although some females may not mate until March. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; Aryal, 2005), As herbivores, Himalayan musk deer facilitate seed dispersal in their environment. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; Aryal, 2005; Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Parental investment is minimal in Himalayan musk deer. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; "Musk Deer", 2009), Occasionally, Himalayan musk deer travel great distances at night to forage for food. (Timmins and Duckworth, 2008), Himalayan musk deer are thought to inhabit a similar habitat to their close relative Moschus chrysogaster, which occupies meadows, shrublands, and sparse forests, such as fir forests. As a result, males mark their territories by rubbing their caudal gland against vegetation. Around 6 months of age, young Himalayan musk deer are weaned and able to consume food from their surroundings, becoming completely independent. Local communities are highly dependent on forests for their daily livelihood support. (Aryal, 2005; Green, 1978; Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Himalayan musk deer weigh around 11 to 18 kg and are 86 to 100 cm in length. Status and distribution of Himalayan Musk deer ‘Moschus chrysogaster’ in Annapurna Conservation Area of Manang District, Nepal. (On-line). Wilson, D., D. Reeder. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. In view of its solitary behaviour and need for dense cover, the musk deer probably relies chiefly on olfaction for communication. Seeds are moved as deer forage and also may cling to their fur. It is listed as endangered by the IUCN because of overexploitation resulting in a probable serious population decline. However, musk deer establish and repeatedly use the same latrines for defecation. The females demonstrate exhaustion and attempt to stay in hiding. They depend on forests for timber, fuel wood, fodder, and collect non-timber forest products including medicinal and aromatic plants and sell them to the market as a source of income. living in the northern part of the Old World. Facebook 2008. Accordingly, they eat grasses, forbs, mosses, lichen, twigs, shoots, and plant leaves. (On-line). Traps kill not only the desired males, but also females and young deer. They are ruminants, so they can quickly leave feeding grounds if threatened and further digest their food at a later time when safe from harm. The ventral side of their bodies ranges from gray to white. The canines break easily, but tooth growth is continuous. Members of this species are thought to use latrine sites and other strong-smelling secretions to mark their territory. Certified Wildlife Friendly® Enterprises that Help Conserve Himalayan Musk Deer, Click below to learn about how we are helping. March 15, 2009 Uniquely, the females have a single pair of mammae. They are primarily active during the morning and evening hours, often when feeding. Sagarmatha Nationalpark. We conducted transect surveys in central Nuristan and confirmed the presence of musk deer Moschus cupreus > 60 years after the last documented observation of the species in Afghanistan. Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) dominated forest, mixed Himalayan fir (Abies spectabilis) and birch forest were preferred over pure Himalayan fir and blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) forest. A community forestry program intervened and initiated the incorporation of a sustainability plan which outlined the harvestable quantity of non-timber forest products on a yearly basis as well as guidelines for responsible harvesting practices which were adopted. Photo about White-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer Moschus leucogaster. The geographic range of the Himalayan musk deer has sharply declined in recent years due to predation, trapping by humans, and habitat destruction. leucogaster, Alpine Musk Deer, Moschus sifanicus. National Science Foundation Ecology and Evolution. Groves, C., W. Yingxiang, P. Grubb. Himalayan musk deer reside in the Himalayan mountain range, particularly within the countries of Bhutan, India, Nepal, and a small part of China. Large birds of prey also occasionally kill young musk deer. [1] Contents. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Protein inferred from homology i. Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster); hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. at http://dezi9or.com/c4n/wildindia/muskdeer/description.htm. (Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Himalayan musk deer attempt to conceal themselves within vegetation to avoid predators. March 20, 2009 Accessed Himalayan BioTrade (HBTL) at http://arts.anu.edu.au/grovco/GrovesWangGrubb.pdf. Wildscreen. Moschus leucogaster. This species is also known by the following name(s): Moschus chrysogaster ssp. During this time, the young remain in hiding, independent of their mothers except when feeding. at http://www.itnc.org/FinalReportonMuskdeerManang.pdf. Himalayan musk deer also have gall bladders, a characteristic that distinguishes musk deer from other deer. The dull brown color of their coats minimizes their chance of detection. Accessed Although the reason for this behavior is unknown, it is increasingly practiced during the mating season. Because it is difficult to distinguish Himalayan musk deer from similar species such as Moschus chrysogaster, the exact rates of their population declines are debatable. Read More. Dieses Stockfoto: Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschuss Leucogaster) im Lebensraum. Moschus leucogaster Vernacular names [ edit wikidata 'White-bellied musk deer' ] English : Himalayan musk deer, Himalayan Muskdeer, Himalayan Musk-deer, Himalayan Musk Deer, White-bellied Musk Deer They are sandy brown in color, with slightly darker rumps and limbs. (Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Himalayan musk deer are solitary, terricolous creatures that usually try to conceal themselves in vegetation. April 25, 2009 2005. found in the oriental region of the world. We provide a complete mitogenome of M. leucogaster and examine its phylogenetic position with other seven Artiodactyla … Characteristics; Distribution and habitat; Ecology and behaviour 1, pp. Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. These efforts are helping to create sustainable supply chains that will benefit these communities for years to come while giving consumers high quality natural products and improving the conditions of key wildlife habitat. The White-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China. Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. 1995. The musk gland attracts females during mating season, and the caudal gland is used to mark territory. 920-926. Timmins, R., J. Duckworth. www.ecolevol.org | 1 | ˘ˇˆ ORIGINAL RESEARCH Ecological correlates of Himalayan musk deer Moschus leucogaster Paras Bikram Singh1,2,3 | 4| The white-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China.It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List because of overexploitation resulting in a probable serious population decline. (On-line). at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13897. Accessed forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. Green, M. 1978. March 15, 2009 [1] Ursprünglich nahm man an, dass sie mit den Hirschen verwandt sind: In älterer Literatur wurden sie oft als Moschushirsche bezeichnet und als ursprüngliche Unterfamilie der Hirsche angesehen. 2000. Common name: Himalayan Musk Deer: Latin name: Moschus leucogaster Hodgson: Local name: Kastura: IUCN/WPA/Indian status: Endangered/locally common: Social unit: Solitary, except when female is with young: Size / weight: HBL: 86-100 cm, HAS: 50 cm. at http://books.google.com/books?id=726qparJDBgC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=himalayan+musk+deer&source=bl&ots=tbhxfDClJ_&sig=_1yJ8yJ2YH9e4Y1Y2lJdF1QT7hc&hl=en&ei=CNK9Sa_qMoTFnQfe2LihBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result#PPA62,M1. Himalayan or white-bellied musk deer (Moschus leucogaster): found in the central Himalayas 11 Interesting facts about deer musk Here are some interesting facts about deer musk as well as about the deer who produce it. Himalayan musk deer, however, tire easily, usually after 200 to 300 m of running. 46, No. having the capacity to move from one place to another. The Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "mammals" and found in the following area(s): China (Tibet), southern slopes of the Himalayas. Click below to learn about how we are helping. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a species of genus Moschus of the family Moschidae. Pp. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed). A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010, "Musk deer facing risk of extinction", 2000, http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Cetartiodactyla/Moschidae.html, http://www.arkive.org/himalayan-musk-deer/moschus-leucogaster, http://dezi9or.com/c4n/wildindia/muskdeer/description.htm, http://www.burmalibrary.org/reg.burma/archives/200010/msg00023.html, http://www.itnc.org/FinalReportonMuskdeerManang.pdf, http://books.google.com/books?id=726qparJDBgC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=himalayan+musk+deer&source=bl&ots=tbhxfDClJ_&sig=_1yJ8yJ2YH9e4Y1Y2lJdF1QT7hc&hl=en&ei=CNK9Sa_qMoTFnQfe2LihBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result#PPA62,M1, http://arts.anu.edu.au/grovco/GrovesWangGrubb.pdf, http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14200198, © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. March 17, 2009 Component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex) that is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Young deer become sexually mature by 16 to 24 months of age. More Taxa Info; Guides; Places; Site Stats; Help; Video Tutorials; Log In or Sign Up An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants. at http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Cetartiodactyla/Moschidae.html. Classification, To cite this page: They are also alerted danger through their good sense of hearing. Young deer nurse from their mothers when necessary but otherwise stay in hiding, unaccompanied by either parent. Some cervids, including the Himalayan musk deer, tend to designate certain areas as latrines, choosing a spot used only for deification. The musk produced by this genus of primitive deer is highly valued for its cosmetic and alleged pharmaceutical properties, and can fetch U.S.$45,000 per kilogram on the international market. They consist of seven species, which mainly inhabit forests and mountainous areas of Asia (Yang et al., 2003). A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing. "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)" Creature Profile . March 17, 2009 Das Himalaya … Additionally, Himalayan musk deer are sought by local people for their fur and meat, which is considered a delicacy. Topics The gestation period is 185 to 195 days. The rounded backs and long alert ears of the Himalayan musk deer contribute to their "hare-like" resemblance. "Musk Deer" Himalayan Musk Deer. Wildlife Friendly Enterprise Network. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate, a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. Accessed January 16, 2021 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Moschus_leucogaster/. 2020. "Moschus moschiferus" ARKive: Images of Life on Earth. Function i. that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). ("Musk deer facing risk of extinction", 2000; Green, 1978; Nyambayar, et al., 2008). Because Himalayan musk deer roam at elevations higher than 2,500 m, their habitat predominantly consists of vegetation typical of alpine regions. Oxford: Alden Press. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular, and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. They may travel 3 to 7 km per night, but they always return to their usual territories by daybreak. Accessed Solukhumbu Bezirk. Moschus leucogaster (Himalayan musk deer) Status. Moschustiere (Moschidae) sind eine mit den Hornträgern (Bovidae), also mit Antilopen, Ziegenartigen und Rindern, verwandte Familie der Paarhufer. Selection of latrine sites by Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) in Neshyang Valley, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. However, musk deer establish and repeatedly use the same latrines for defecation. Himalayan musk deer make a double hiss sound when alarmed and may even scream when wounded. Musk is an important component in perfume and is also used in traditional medicinal practices. If none are easily found, the deer use their speed to run in circles, hoping to lose the predator. Share. January 18, 2011 at http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14200198. CITES lists the small number of Himalayan musk deer that inhabit China in Appendix II and all other Himalayan musk deer in Appendix I. Himalayan musk deer are threatened by hunting, habitat fragmentation, habitat reduction, and habitat destruction. Accessed Moschus leucogaster Hodgson, 1839 – Himalayan Musk Deer. Image of china, animal, moschiferus - 104642627 (On-line). Taxonomy of Musk Deer, Genus Moschus (Moschidae, Mammalia). Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. UK: ITNC. And it also has been listed as EN by the red list of China’s vertebrates. Nyambayar, B., H. Mix, K. Tsytsulina. Journal of Applied Animal Research: Vol. 2011. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! "Moschus leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. IUCN Status: Endangered. They can jump as far as 6 m, which is advantageous when being chased by slower predators. © Copyright 2015. Ungulates of the World. This mountainous species is accustomed to navigating moderately to very steep slopes. 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himalayan musk deer moschus leucogaster 2021