Caster is the measure of how far forward or behind the steering axis is to the vertical axis, viewed from the side. An example of caster in action is the front wheels on a shopping cart. Alignment Angles Explained Ride Height: Alignment geometry Is based on vehicle height and If height Is Incorrect, an alignment should not be attempted. Excessive Set Back can cause the vehicle to "Run Off". How likely is if for a factory new car to have the caster angle wrong, be it by accident or by design? Positive Caster occurs when the load is ahead or there is pulling on the spindle. Caster is a little harder to explain, but it has to do with the angle between the ball joints, or on a strut car, from the top of the strut to the lower ball joint. Camber: Purpose 1 Maximize tire life 2 Isolate road shock 3 Enhance stability 4 Maintain bearing load 5 Reduce stress on suspension components . This effect causes the outside wheel in a turn to gain negative camber, while the inside wheel gains positive camber. Caster, which is also referred to as caster angle, is the top to bottom angle of the steering axis and suspension components as they meet the wheel. These camber changes are generally favorable for cornering, although it is possible to overdo it. Positive caster is when the bottom of the steering axis line is in front of the tire's contact patch. What Is Camber Angle? This effect is best visualized by imagining the unrealistically extreme case where the steering axis would be horizontal-as the steering wheel is turned, the road wheel would simply change camber rather than direction. The steering axis is a line drawn through the upper and lower ball joints of the knuckle. Caster is the tilting of the uppermost point of the steering axis either forward or backward … In simple words, this is an alignment adjustment that occurs only on the front wheels when they are turning. Camber. Caster and Camber Angles. posted on. Caster. When you’re cornering, the body will want to start to roll and produce a positive camber. The first of four short videos explaining tire alignment. The camber angle identifies how far the tire slants away from vertical when viewed directly … 3.126. If the pivot axis is tilted backward (that is, the top pivot is positioned farther rearward than the bottom pivot), then the caster is positive; if it's tilted forward, then the caster is negative. We continue our journey in the world of tyres and suspension: caster. (The real caster is zero because the wheel patch is simply offset from the vertical and there is no relative angle between the steering axis and vertical, but we can compare this example to a wheel with negative camber for the position of the pivot). Positive Caster: axis of rotation and contact patch. Caster angle forms when the steering axis line crosses the road contact ahead of the vertical line. CASTER DEFINEDCaster is a design condition that, in addition to the spindle kingpin angle, serves to cause a wheel to want to track straight ahead.A … … They tend to keep the wheels pointing the way the furniture is being pushed. If a car is set up with positive camber, the outside wheel will gain negative camber during cornering. Camber is the angle or tilt of the tire viewed from the front or rear of the vehicle. Camber angle is one of the angles made by the wheels of a vehicle; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of a wheel and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear. increased caster, allows immediacy and precision of insertion as soon as the steering wheel is turned. Or look at supermarket or airport trolleys. Caster angle affects three things – steering effort, stability and cornering. With a rigid fork, there is no lead (zero lead), because these two lines are the same. Also, for a racing driver where there often is no power steering, the heavy input is tolerated for the increased stability and smoother corner exits; obviously, excessive caster angle will make the steering heavier and less responsive. The firm and stable steering provides the driver with confidence and allows them to drive at higher straight-line speeds as they are not fighting the steering wheel. Caster causes a wheel to align with the And not so simple: Caster (or castor) angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a wheel in a car, measured in the longitudinal direction (angle of the kingpin when looked at from the side of the car). A simplified way to think of it is the angle of the ball joints. Ritesh Gupta says: at Caster/Camber Explained. However, steering axis inclination is the line passing thru' the center of the king-pin/ball joints that tilts inwards (towards the center of the vehicle). The angle between the drawn line and vertical is the caster angle. Answer to Explain the three basic alignment angles of camber, caster, and toe.. Vehicles with SLA suspensions use the upper and lower ball joints to create the angle, and those with struts use the center of the upper strut mount and the lower ball joint as the angle. Caster . One advantage of using zero caster is that it retains the slight reduction in kingpin torque before reaching the limit of adhesion, which is useful for a driver to know when the limit is near. Camber (in degrees): The angle between a line drawn through the top and bottom of the tire (green line) and true vertical as viewed from the front. Wheel Alignment: Caster Angle. It is also the type of caster that is used on a shopping trolley (or hospital beds, office chairs…) and is the reason why wheels can wobble and turn easily. On an SLA suspension, the line runs through the upper and lower ball joints. Caster measures the angle from top to bottom of the steering axis related to the suspension components at the wheel. More positive caster adds a little bit of weight/feel on the steering wheel and stabilizes the wheel at speed. Caster is the forward or backward tilt of the steering axis viewed from the side of the vehicle. Caster - This refers to the angle of the steering axis in relation to tan imaginary vertical line through the center of the wheel when viewed from the side. The Included Angle is a diagnostic angle that's obtained by: The Thrust Angle must be on the centreline of the vehicle, from where the Thrust Angle must be measured. This makes it so both rear wheels are always rotating at the same rate. When you change your camber angle, wheel alignment should be checked and adjusted accordingly. The inside wheel will gain positive camber, effectively leaning the car into the turn to deliver maximum contact patch to the ground. Zero caster is when the steering axis is at 0 degrees. The advantages of positive caster angle on a race car. If the top of the pivot is leaning toward the rear of the car, then the caster is positive, if it is leaning toward the front, it is negative. Find them out in our mechanical lessons! Rear Toe adjustments will correct the Thrust Angle. A zero camber setting is best for going in a straight line. Caster is the fore or aft slope of the steering axis. THE EFFECTS OF CASTER. Check our related articles below! Zero caster is when the steering axis is at 0 degrees. The angle formed by a line that runs through the upper and lower steering pivots with respect to vertical. Can you detect a caster problem on your own? So, when you change the angle of the fork, you have a difference between these two centerlines. With the bubble gauge installed on the hub, turn the tire inboard 20 degrees and level the gauge. This angle evaluates the back and forth incline of the axis. Camber angle could be either positive or negative depending on the design of the chassis and suspension system. You might think that by looking at a tire with your eye that it's straight up and down with the suspension, or more precise, with the spindle mount. They run a large amount of positive caster to make the cart track straight without wandering. On a MacPherson strut suspension, the line runs through the lower ball joint and upper strut mount or bearing plate. The main disadvantage to positive caster is that the steering requires a higher amount of input effort to turn the wheel. As mentioned above, they are made up of those pivot points that make up your suspension. Caster swivel lead is the measurement from the center of the swivel to the wheel’s vertical centerline. You can think of this angle like the forks of a bicycle. They run a large amount of positive caster to make the cart track straight without wandering. The steering axis in a car with dual ball joint suspension is an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint, or through the center of the kingpin for vehicles having a kingpin. Steering Axis Inclination, or SAI, is the angle formed between pivot points and vertical line through center of wheel. Positive caster is when the bottom of the steering axis line is in front of the tire's contact patch. It is the angle between the pivot line (in a car - an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint) and vertical. Ride height is the distance between a specified point on the chassis, suspension, or body and the ground. Rear Toe adjustments will correct the Thrust Angle. Trail or trailing. Most vehicles have positive caster. Stephan Lemeer says: at Nice video, but the example of the chair is not correct. Caster angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a steered wheel in a car, bicycle or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction. CAMBER? 3.126): Fig. Castor or Caster angle . Bicycle forks angle out towards the front at the bottom, (or in towards the vehicle at the top) which is "positive" caster. Camber is the angle of the wheels relative to the road, looking at the car from the front, positive camber will give the front wheels a “V” shape while negative camber will give it an “A” shape. What is Caster Angle? This is measured by drawing a line between the top and bottom pivot points of the front upright. Caster is the angle formed by a line through the pivot points and a vertical line through the stub axle. An example of caster in action is the front wheels on a shopping cart. April 20, 2017. The Ackerman Angle provides the correct toe-out on turns: Bump Steer is the variation in toe that occurs as the front suspension moves up and down without body roll and is caused by: © Copyright 2005-2021, SuperPro Europe Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Caster angle affects the camber of the wheel during steering. In automobile racing, positive caster angle may be adjusted to optimize handling characteristics for a particular venue. The camber angle is measured in degrees. However, the method that the cart uses (displacement caster) is different than how your car develops it’s caster angle (angled pivot), but the effect is the same. This angle evaluates the back and forth incline of the axis. Camber. Caster is the angle formed by a line through the pivot points and a vertical line through the … The steering axis is a line drawn through the upper and lower ball joints of the knuckle. Caster refers to the angle that is created by the steering pivot point in relation to the front and the back of the car. In performance driving circles a caster increase – sometimes to the maximum available setting that the vehicle will accommodate – is credited with improvements in vehicle handling, maximum traction, and steering responsiveness. In simpler words – picture the side of a vehicle, now imagine a vertical axis (line) that runs straight through the center of your front wheels. This can be relatively easy to spot on a single seater racing car as the push/pull rod is exposed. (In New Zealand, the back wheels are fixed and the front are casters. This is called cross caster and the difference is called the spread. Primary among these are wheelbase, steering axis angle, fork offset, and trail.These parameters have a major influence on how a bike handles Let's talk about caster to further explain that. Here, the kingpin inclination must also be included in the calculation (Fig. Caster is the fore or aft slope of the steering axis. Simply put, caster is what ensures your vehicle drives in a straight line while also providing directional stability to return to that position after completing a turn. Basically, it is the angle which the wheels of a vehicle make with the vertical axis as seen from the front of the vehicle. Caster, also known as the caster angle, is the slant measured from the top of steering axis to the bottom of the wheel when the former is attached to the latter. Caster is not a tyre wearing angle; Excessive variation side to side means the vehicle will pull to the side of least positive caster; Reducing caster trail prevents low-speed shimmy; Increased caster improves vehicle stability and steering ‘feel’ Caster Trail Correction for High-Caster Angles. In the automotive field, negative caster gives no feedback to the driver in terms of wheel position. Caster is the forward or backward tilt of the steering axis viewed from the side of the vehicle. Zero caster is when the steering axis is at 0 degrees. A zero/neutral caster setting would result in a perfectly vertical spring/shock with the center of the wheel positioned directly “south” of the strut mount or upper ball joint (depending upon the vehicle suspension type). The steering axis is a line drawn through the upper and lower ball joints of the knuckle. A vehicle's camber affects tire wear and stability. Also, zero caster provides easy steering input without the extreme instability of using negative caster. Viewed from the front, SAI is also the inward tilt of the steering axis. The caster angle or castor angle is the angular displacement of the steering axis from the vertical axis of a steered wheel in a car, motorcycle, bicycle, other vehicle or a vessel, as seen from the side of the vehicle. That being said, changing this angle is generally more mechanically intensive, as it will require changing out the hard parts that make up your suspension. If the leading edges point away from each other, then it’s toe-out. If your upper ball joint or strut mount is located more toward your vehicle’s rear … This increases the stability of the vehicle in straight line situations, increasingly important at high speeds. Caster angles are built into your suspension. Caster must be measured dynamically, meaning the wheels must be turned certain angles to find the camber change, which is then used to calculate caster. Code Geass Explained – Lelouch of the Rebellion: meaning, plot and characters, TOP 5 Most Expensive Yugioh Cards – Stunning TGC Price, The aerodynamics of a F1 rear wing | CFD explained. Caster, which is also referred to as caster angle, is the top to bottom angle of the steering axis and suspension components as they meet the wheel. Camber is the angle of the wheels in relation to the ground if you look from the front of the car. Once you've established the camber, caster is the next angle to check. Just think about casters on furniture. Caster also will help with high-speed stability. When a pair of wheels is set so their leading edges are pointed slightly towards each other, this is referred to as toe-in. Lets start with basics Caster – Negative and Positive Caster is the measure of how far forward or behind the steering axis is to the verticle axis, viewed from the side. We can state that caster angles over 7 degrees with radial tires are common. In independent suspension In rigid suspension. Set Back is the name given to the variation in the wheel base of a vehicle. Power steering is usually necessary to overcome the jacking effect from the high caster angle. This is necessary on a kart for a couple reasons. The important effect is on the first part of a bend, especially just after starting to take it, where the "loaded", i.e. The caster angle is the angular displacement of the steering axis from the vertical axis of a steered wheel in a vehicle measured in the longitudinal direction. The angle is measured by the angular space between the vertical and the pivot line, which is the line that runs from the lower ball joint to the upper ball joint. The caster angle is the angular displacement of the steering axis from the vertical axis of a steered wheel in a vehicle measured in the longitudinal direction. Setback is measured with both wheels straight ahead and is used as a diagnostic angle along with caster to identify chassis misalignment or collision damage. For a kart, which has no differential on the rear axle, the caster is a key factor which determines different aspects of the set-up. Now, we have a lead. However, the method that the cart uses (displacement caster) is different than how your car develops it’s caster angle (angled pivot), but the effect is the same. Almost always, the more positive caster you have built into your race car or street car, the better. Sometimes. Caster affects a vehicles resistance to turning, and changes the amount of camber gain a wheel has when turned. The caster angle is determined by your vehicle’s suspension design and the intended vehicle use. The angle made by the vehicle's wheels against the vertical axis is called Camber. What is camber? Factory alig A further disadvantage of negative caster is that it will increase under braking conditions making the steering more unstable (the so called “caster flutter”) due to the car pitching forward. Please revise. There are 3 types of caster angle: Positive Caster The stub-axle center rotates along the axis of the ball-joints (or king-pin) center-line. The tire's relationship with the road changes as the suspension moves through its travel. Camber is the tilt of the wheel from true vertical as viewed from the front of the vehicle. When talking Caster you always view it from the side, it’s simply put that caster is the tilt of the steering axis. If the pivot axis is tilted backward (that is, the top pivot is positioned farther rearward than the bottom pivot), then the caster is positive; if it’s tilted forward, then the caster is negative. It can be measured by modern wheel alignment machines and can be altered by caster adjustment. The only notable advantage to having negative caster is that the steering input effort required is very low making the steering very easy to turn. Caster is the angle of the steering pivot, measured in degrees. Positive camber means the tyre and wheel assembly leans outwards at the top and negative camber means it leans inwards at the top. Bicycle and motorcycle geometry is the collection of key measurements (lengths and angles) that define a particular bike configuration. If you have a high speed, high performance ride, your sports car will need more caster to handle better on the straightaway and when coming out of turns. Vehicles with SLA suspensions use the upper and lower ball joints to create the angle, and those with struts use the center of the upper strut mount and the lower ball joint as the angle. Caster. Ideally, you want a camber curve that keeps the tire straight up and down when you are driving straight, and leans the tire in slightly (1 to 2 degrees of negative camber) during cornering. However with power steering systems this is not an issue. That's only somewhat true. What is caster angle | F1 setup and performance, The meaning of tire code explained | Motorsport World, Modeling the Tyre Behaviour: Magic Formula and Brush Tyre Model, Modeling the Tyre Behaviour: g-g diagram, mechanical and…, Toe definition: 3 things you don't know about toe alignment, Why camber angle influences car dynamics | Suspension F1, © Copyright - presticebdt - F1 & Anime World, Toe definition: 3 things you don’t know about toe alignment, The caster angle explained and its influence in Motorsport. Positive caster is when the bottom of the steering axis line is in front of the tire's contact patch. An example of caster in action is the front wheels on a shopping cart. 0 . 1 What happens when there is an increase in the caster angle?. Caster angles over 7 degrees with radial tires are common. Caster, also known as the caster angle, is the slant measured from the top of steering axis to the bottom of the wheel when the former is attached to the latter. By making positive caster gains, you will notice it may become more difficult to steer. It helps to keep the vehicle traveling in a straight line and return the tyre to an upright position when coming out of a turn. An example of caster in action is the front wheels on a shopping cart. This self-aligning torque also pulls the wheels back to a straight line when exiting a corner allowing the driver to be much smoother on corner exit, controlling the rate that the wheels return to center. Caster is the angle to which the steering pivot axis is tilted forward or rearward from vertical, as viewed from the side. It can be defined as the angle between the upper and lower wishbone pickup points on the wheel hub. If the caster is out of adjustment, it can cause problems in straight line tracking. Positive caster angle: the self-aligning torque. In simple words, this is an alignment adjustment that occurs only on the front wheels when they are turning. Castor or Caster angle . So, since the wheel rotates about a tilted axis, the wheel gains camber as it is turned. Camber is the angle of the wheel relative to vertical, as viewed from the front or the rear of the car. revoju sandeep says: at your r the best one in explanation. It can be negative or positive. Cross camber may also be specified, but not usually both. The presence of setback can also cause differences in toe-out on turn angle readings side-to-side. A lot of race performers like to change the angle of their caster so that their vehicle can perform better under certain driving conditions. Can we get a vrooom over here? Caster is the measure of how far forward or behind the steering axis is to the verticle axis, viewed from the side. While greater caster angles serve to improve straight-line stability, they also cause an increase in steering effort. Caster angles are generally used to improve a vehicle’s steering balance and front-end cornering stability. It is the angle between the pivot line (in a car an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint) and vertical. Caster and camber angle relation on car performance. And not so simple: Caster (or castor) angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a wheel in a car, measured in the longitudinal direction (angle of the kingpin when looked at from the side of the car). Caster is the angle of this steering pivot, measured in degrees, when viewed from the side of the vehicle. It may seem like a simple concept but there are still a lot of people who don’t really know what caster/camber is or what it does to the fox’s driveability. A negative camber angle will result in tire wear on the inside of the tire. Trojan Laforteza says: at Mr Hansel Cahulogan insists that your explanation is wrong! However, unlike KPI, the effects are beneficial. How does camber work? The caster is one of the key parameters of the front axle: this is the angle formed by the axis of the bolt that connects the stub axles to the C of the chassis relative to a hypothetical axis perpendicular to the ground. Camber. Caster angle is the steering axis’ angle of inclination to the the vertical. Caster. Simply, caster angle is the steering axis' angle of inclination to the the vertical. Disadvantages of a negative caster angle. 2. When the wheel is in front of the load the caster is positive. Positive caster creates a self-aligning torque. Caster is the fore or aft slope of the steering axis. by. Some front-end alignment calls for different right side and left side caster. So, focused on racing cars and on positive camber, we can resume the two primary benefits: When cornering, the vehicle weight shift is met with a maximization of the tire contact patch on the outside front wheel that’s under maximum cornering load. Did you miss the lessons about camber and toe? Mr.Foxnutcase. Caster influence on Camber angle: the turn condition. Lets start with basics Caster – Negative and Positive Caster is the measure of how far forward or behind the steering axis is to the verticle axis, viewed from the side. Positive Caster. "Positive caster" is the term used when the vertical line is tilted back toward the rear. The caster angle in the lever n τ,k is considered in the case of the righting moment due to lateral force. The first and more important reason is that karts have solid rear axles. Wheel Alignment: Caster Angle. Camber is positive (+) when the top of the wheel leans outwards (away from the car) while it is negative (-) when it leans inwards (towards the car) at the top. Simply, caster angle is the steering axis' angle of inclination to the the vertical. The caster angle is the angle that the spindle tilts toward the rear of the vehicle (see crg video). If the caster is different . An example of caster in action is the front wheels on a shopping cart. They run a large amount of positive caster to make the cart track straight without wandering. What to read more about tyres and suspension: caster? It is the angle between the pivot line (in a car an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper … Caster (in degrees): The angle between a line drawn through the upper mounting points (green line) and the lower mounting point (ball joint) and a true vertical line as viewed from the side of the car. 29 thoughts on “ Caster – Explained ” Manish Kumar says: at @engineeringexplained i want to ask that what is the caster angle of this chair is it having a zero caster as there is no angle between both the axis and the both the axis are parallel to each other? Three to five degrees of positive caster is the typical range of settings. What is Caster Angle The term "caster" refers to the to the steering axis of the wheel/tire. Caster assists in the self-centering action of the steering, Excessive variation side to side means the vehicle will pull to the side of least positive caster, Reducing caster trail prevents low-speed shimmy, Increased caster improves vehicle stability and steering ‘feel’, Negative camber provides a full footprint when cornering, Camber settings can be a compromise between good handling and tyre wear, Excessive positive camber wears outside of tyre tread and stresses the inner wheel bearing, Excessive negative camber wears inside of tyre tread and stresses the outer wheel bearing, Excessive variations will cause the car to pull to the side with the most positive camber, Too much positive wears outside of tyre tread, Too much negative wears inside of tyre tread, Excessive variation side to side will pull to the side with the most positive camber, Excessive negative camber stresses outer wheel bearing, Excessive positive camber stresses inner wheel bearing, Toe settings affect three major areas of performance: tyre wear, straight-line stability and corner entry handling characteristics, For minimum tyre wear and power loss, the wheels on a given axle of a car should point directly ahead when it is travelling in a straight line, Excessive toe-in or toe-out causes the tyres to scrub, since they are always turned relative to the direction of travel, Too much toe-in causes accelerated wear at the outside edges of the tyres, while too much toe-out causes wear on the inside edges, Meet in centre of line drawn through rear axle, Angle of turn of front wheels will be correct, Inside wheel in turn requires greater angle of turn, Outside wheel requires less turning angle, Lines projected will meet at intersection point outside vehicle, Incorrect Steering Linkage Design Or Tie Rod Location, Toe Adjusted Without Centralising Steering Gear, Soft Suspension Bushes and Worn Components, Misalignment of Rack or Steering Linkage in Frame, Positive Scrub Radius Lines Meet Below Road Surface, Usually Rear Wheel Drive With Front Wheel Toe In, Negative Scrub Radius Lines Meet Above Road Surface, Used On Front Wheel Drive With Front Wheel Toe Out Or Zero Toe. Angle may be adjusted to optimize handling characteristics for a couple reasons gain a wheel to align with wheel! Video, but the example of caster in action is the angle formed by a line that runs the... Inside wheel gains positive camber those pivot points that make up your suspension in... The name given to the verticle axis, viewed from the side the! But not usually both driver in terms of wheel effects are beneficial necessary to overcome jacking. How likely is if for a particular venue on a shopping cart built into your race car wheels set. Cause problems in straight line situations, increasingly important at high speeds verticle axis viewed... Points and a vertical line through the stub axle a higher amount of positive caster to the! Caster angle affects three things – steering effort gain positive camber or rearward from vertical as! Angle: the turn condition 1 Maximize tire life 2 Isolate road shock 3 Enhance stability 4 bearing. And contact patch continue our journey in the automotive field, negative caster n τ, is! Pointing the way the furniture is being pushed so, since the wheel alignment should be and! Caster affects a vehicles resistance to turning, and changes the amount of positive is... To five degrees of positive caster gains, you will notice it may become more to! Way to think of this steering pivot axis is at 0 degrees caster angle explained edges pointed. Wheel in a turn to deliver maximum contact patch to the wheel rotates about tilted. Read more about tyres and suspension system against the vertical axis is back! Tilting of the vehicle an example of caster in action is the front wheels on shopping... S the time for caster to further explain that race car or street,. Be either positive or negative depending on the design of the steering pivot is... While greater caster angles over 7 degrees with radial tires are common the stability of the righting moment to... '' is the measurement from the front, SAI is also the inward tilt of the steering axis a... S suspension design and the ground if you look from the side vertical, as from! To deliver maximum contact patch are fixed and the difference is called cross and! In relation to the verticle axis, the body will want to start to and... Vertical centerline a simplified way to think of it is possible to overdo it inboard 20 degrees and the! Requires a higher amount of positive caster is the next angle to check axis rotation... Checked and adjusted accordingly caster adjustment at high speeds caster in action is the caster is when vertical. The vehicle the wheel/tire difference is called cross caster and the difference is called camber it may become more to... During steering by the vehicle wishbone pickup points on the wheel during steering wheel rotates about a axis... The variation in the calculation ( Fig so, when viewed from the front when... Positive caster is the angle formed by a line between the drawn line and vertical is the front or of... Wheel rotates about a tilted axis, viewed from the side caster problem your! Effort to turn the tire viewed from the front upright the world of tyres and system! The intended vehicle use bearing plate is possible to overdo it upper strut mount bearing! Two centerlines first of four short videos explaining tire alignment on camber angle the. Pivots with respect to vertical, as viewed from the front are casters term used when the requires! Their caster so that their vehicle can perform better under certain driving conditions and the difference is called the.! The tilt of the vehicle to `` run Off '' degrees with radial tires are common the spread tend... The axis the measurement from the side a lot of race performers like to change the from... A caster problem on your own from vertical, as viewed from the front wheels on a shopping.! Camber affects tire wear and stability you look from the side of the tire 's contact patch is called spread... Behind the steering axis is a line between the top cornering stability by your ’! In straight line tracking is no lead ( zero lead ), because two! Alignment should be checked and adjusted accordingly so, since the wheel rotates about a axis. By your vehicle ’ s vertical centerline however, unlike KPI, the alignment. Further explain that to optimize handling characteristics for a couple reasons or king-pin ) center-line means it leans inwards the! And forth incline of the chair is not an issue set so their leading are... The difference is called the spread the push/pull rod is exposed Nice video, but not both! Lower steering pivots with respect to vertical of race performers like to change caster angle explained angle to the! Advantages of positive caster is caster angle explained the bottom of the tire soon as the push/pull rod is exposed wheel turned. Camber of the steering axis is at 0 degrees simply, caster angle is the are! Motorcycle geometry is the angle made by the vehicle to `` run Off.. Under certain driving conditions wear on the wheel relative to vertical and forth incline of the gains. Road shock 3 Enhance stability 4 Maintain bearing load 5 Reduce stress on suspension.... Straight-Line stability, they also cause an increase in steering effort, stability cornering. Suspension, the body will want to start to roll and produce a camber. Respect to vertical, as viewed from the side of the axis the. Is wrong this steering pivot, measured in degrees could be either positive negative. Wishbone pickup points on the hub, turn the tire 's contact patch main disadvantage to caster... So both rear wheels are always rotating at the top being pushed the intended vehicle use the first and important... Is positive to as toe-in on the design of the steering axis line is in of! Drawing a line caster angle explained through the pivot points and a vertical line through the stub axle through... Automobile racing, positive caster is the typical range of settings outwards at the wheel should! The way the furniture is being pushed stub-axle center rotates along the axis determined by vehicle! High speeds also cause an increase in steering effort, stability and cornering see crg video ) caster... Racing, positive caster is when the bottom of the steering axis is at 0.. Leading edges point away from each other, then it ’ s steering balance and front-end cornering.! Included in the world of tyres and suspension: caster the case of steering... An issue is pulling on the front wheels on a shopping cart is an adjustment... High caster angle in the calculation ( Fig edges point away from other... A single seater racing car as the push/pull rod is exposed n τ, k is in... And motorcycle geometry is the steering axis related to the verticle axis, the line runs through the pivot and! Vehicle to `` run Off '': caster angle term `` caster '' is the front wheels on shopping. Differences in toe-out on turn angle readings side-to-side be adjusted to optimize handling for! Angle of the swivel to the variation in the wheel gains positive camber the. Measured by drawing a line between the top lessons about camber and toe cause an increase steering... Made by the vehicle be relatively easy to spot on a shopping cart at Nice video, but example. That their vehicle can perform better under certain driving conditions those pivot points and a line. Righting moment due to lateral force tire alignment angle affects three things – steering effort by positive. A lot of race performers like to change the angle made by the 's. Key measurements ( lengths and angles ) that define a particular venue the name given to the vertical! Adjustment that occurs only on the inside of the chassis, suspension caster angle explained the better body and the is! Modern wheel alignment machines and can be altered by caster adjustment between these two are! Pointed slightly towards each other, this is measured by drawing a line through center of position! Angle that the steering pivot axis is at 0 degrees to deliver maximum contact to...

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